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Atlas of Pollen and Spores of The Florida Everglades

Materials and Methods

>Materials & Methods
Spore & Pollen Descriptions
References Cited
Appendix 1
Figure & Table List
PDF Version
Pollen was isolated from flowers collected in the Everglades by the authors and from herbarium species in collections in herbaria at the National Museum of Natural History, George Mason University, Duke University, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Collection data are provided in Table 3. Before processing anther material for pollen, flowers were either pressed and dried on herbarium sheets or dehydrated with glacial acetic acid. Acetolysis of anther material followed procedures outlined by Traverse (1988): dehydration with glacial acetic acid, immersion in acetolysis solution (9 parts acetic anhydride : 1 part sulfuric acid) for 10 minutes in a boiling water bath, neutralization using repeated washes in deionized water, staining with Bismarck Brown, and mounting on microscope slides with glycerin jelly. When necessary, this material was supplemented with older reference material from the Duke University Wetland Center and earlier U.S. Geological Survey collections. It should be noted that use of different mounting media and processing techniques can affect palynomorph size, but overall morphology and relative size remain the same. Specimens were photographed under oil with an Olympus BX-50 with Nomarski optics and are illustrated at either 1000X or 400X (for larger palynomorphs).

Whenever possible, at least ten specimens from each species were measured for the appropriate dimensions. In most cases, measurements were made from digital images using the morphometrics package ImageJ (available via download at In a few cases, measurements were made using an ocular micrometer in the microscope.

The atlas includes 121 species, 110 genera, and 63 families of plants. Complete descriptions are arranged alphabetically by family, with pteridophytes first, followed by monocotyledonous plants, then dicotyledonous plants. Nomenclature follows USDA National Plants Database (USDA, NRCS, 2004). Photographic plates are arranged morphologically to facilitate identification. Amb or overall grain shape is first defined, followed by shape classes (i.e., prolate, oblate) as originally defined by Erdtman (1943, 1952). The shape classes are based on measurements of the polar axis (P) and equatorial diameter (E) and the resulting P/E ratio (see glossary). Mean dimensions are provided, followed by minima and maxima in parentheses. Aperture and sculpture characteristics for all described species are summarized in Table 4. In each description, exine thicknesses are given exclusive of positive sculpture. A glossary of palynological terminology is provided in Appendix 1.

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