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Hurricane Disturbance and Recovery of Energy Balance, CO2 Fluxes and Canopy Structure in a Mangrove Forest of the Florida Everglades

Table 1 Mean ± 1 s.d. of half-hourly soil temperature (TS), air temperature (TA), soil-air temperature differences (-5 cm to 27 m) and within-canopy lapse rates between (1.5-20 m) for dry (November to May) and wet (June to October) seasons before and after Hurricane Wilma. Similar letter superscripts in columns identify results that are not significantly different (P > 0.01) within each season during daytime (10:00-14:00 h) or nighttime (0:00-4:00 h) periods using a two-sided t-test with Bonferroni correction.
Year Tsoil (°C)
(-50 cm)
Tsoil (°C)
(-20 cm)
Tsoil (°C)
(-5 cm)
Tair (°C)
(1.5 m)
Tair (°C)
(20 m)
Tair (°C)
(27 m)
[Tsoil(-5 cm) - Tair(27 m)]
(°C)
Lapse rate
(°C km-1)
Dry season, daytime
2004 21.1 ± 1.9a 21.0 ± 2.4a 20.7 ± 2.8a 23.5 ± 3.6b 24.3 ± 3.4bc 24.2 ± 3.4b -3.5 ± 2.1a -47 ± 30a
2004-2005 21.7 ± 2.2b 21.2 ± 2.7a 20.9 ± 3.2a 23.1 ± 4.2ab 23.9 ± 3.9b 23.8 ± 3.8b -3.0 ± 2.3b -48 ± 44a
2006-2007 22.7 ± 1.4c 21.4 ± 2.0a 21.0 ± 2.3a 22.2 ± 3.6a 21.9 ± 3.8a 21.5 ± 3.8c -0.5 ± 3.0d 13 ± 28c
2007-2008 24.0 ± 1.5d 24.0 ± 1.8b 23.5 ± 2.1b 26.5 ± 2.9c 26.5 ± 2.7d 25.9 ± 2.7a -2.4 ± 2.0c -1 ± 33b
2008-2009 21.2 ± 2.5a 21.1 ± 3.2a 20.6 ± 3.6a NA 24.5 ± 3.8c 24.1 ± 3.7b -3.5 ± 2.7a NA
Wet season, daytime
2004 27.4 ± 0.7b 27.3 ± 0.9a 27.3 ± 1.1a 29.3 ± 1.9a 29.7 ± 1.8b 29.6 ± 1.8a -2.3 ± 1.4a -26 ± 29b
2005 26.9 ± 0.6a 27.2 ± 0.8a 27.5 ± 1.1a 29.2 ± 2.0ab 30.1 ± 1.4a 29.5 ± 1.6a -2.1 ± 1.5a -48 ± 59a
2007 28.2 ± 1.4d 28.1 ± 1.5c 27.9 ± 1.5b 29.6 ± 2.1b 29.0 ± 2.1d 29.1 ± 2.1b -1.2 ± 2.1c 34 ± 35d
2008 27.8 ± 0.8c 27.6 ± 1.3b 27.4 ± 1.5a 29.6 ± 2.7b 29.4 ± 2.6c 29.0 ± 2.5b -1.6 ± 1.9b 14 ± 41c
2009 28.1 ± 0.9d 28.3 ± 0.9d 28.1 ± 1.0c NA 30.4 ± 1.6a 29.8 ± 1.6a -1.7 ± 1.7b NA
Dry season, nighttime
2004 21.0 ± 1.9a 21.2 ± 2.5a 21.0 ± 2.7a 18.4 ± 3.6a 18.9 ± 4.0b 18.3 ± 3.7b 2.7 ± 2.1a -26 ± 38a
2004-2005 21.5 ± 2.2b 21.1 ± 2.6a 20.8 ± 2.9a 18.2 ± 3.9a 18.6 ± 4.3b 18.3 ± 4.0b 2.5 ± 2.5a -22 ± 50a
2006-2007 23.2 ± 1.3c 22.3 ± 1.9b 22.2 ± 2.1b 17.8 ± 3.7a 17.0 ± 4.0a 16.7 ± 3.8a 5.5 ± 2.5d 44 ± 22c
2007-2008 24.4 ± 1.5d 24.8 ± 1.8c 24.9 ± 1.9c 21.8 ± 2.9b 21.3 ± 3.0c 20.9 ± 3.0c 4.1 ± 1.9c 27 ± 28b
2008-2009 21.6 ± 2.5b 21.7 ± 3.2b 21.9 ± 3.4b NA 18.9 ± 4.2b 18.6 ± 4.1b 3.3 ± 2.3b NA
Wet season, nighttime
2004 27.5 ± 0.7a 27.7 ± 1.0a 27.4 ± 1.1a 25.3 ± 1.9a 25.5 ± 1.8c 24.7 ± 1.8b 2.7 ± 1.1b -9 ± 58b
2005 27.0 ± 0.9a 27.6 ± 1.0ab 27.3 ± 1.2ab 25.5 ± 1.2ab 26.9 ± 1.4a 26.0 ± 1.0a 1.3 ± 1.0a -78 ± 54a
2007 28.6 ± 1.1c 28.7 ± 1.3c 28.7 ± 1.4c 26.1 ± 1.1b 25.0 ± 1.1d 25.2 ± 1.2a 3.5 ± 1.0d 59 ± 21d
2008 28.1 ± 0.8b 28.1 ± 1.3b 28.1 ± 1.5b 26.1 ± 2.1b 25.2 ± 2.2cd 24.9 ± 2.1ab 3.1 ± 1.3c 52 ± 27c
2009 28.2 ± 1.4b 28.8 ± 1.5c 28.8 ± 1.7c NA 25.9 ± 1.4b 25.7 ± 1.5a 3.1 ± 1.9c NA



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