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Freshwater Flows into Northeastern Florida Bay

Project Proposal for 1999

Continuing Project Work Plan - FY 1999

IDENTIFYING INFORMATION
Project title: Freshwater Discharges into Northeastern Florida Bay
Geographic area: Florida Bay. Dade/Monroe counties, Florida.
Project start date: October 1, 1994
Project end date: September 30, 2001
Project chief: Eduardo Patino
Region/Division/Team/Section: WRD, Miami
Email: epatino@usgs.gov
Phone: (305) 526-2895
Fax: (305) 526-2881
Mail address:
9100 NW 36th St.
Suite 107
Miami, Florida, 33178

Program(s): Integrated Natural Resource Science (INATURES)

Program element(s)/task(s): Element 2; Modeling support studies for Southern Inland and Coastal Systems of South Dade County (including the Buttonwood Embankment). Task 2.1: Freshwater discharge to Florida Bay.

BACKGROUND NARRATIVES
Project summary: Little is known about the hydrology of Florida Bay. Two of the many unknowns are the amount of freshwater flowing into Florida Bay from the mainland and the effect that years of man-made changes in water deliveries have had, and will have, in the quality of the bay environment. Flow and salinity information along the mangrove zone is needed to determine the extent of the effects that water management practices on the mainland have on the quality of the Florida Bay environment. Hydrodynamic modelers of the Everglades (mainland) and Florida Bay will use these data to calibrate and verify models describing flow through the mangrove zone, and circulation patterns within the bay.

Project objectives and strategy: The objectives of this project are:
(1) To calculate water discharges at key entry points along the northeastern coastline of Florida Bay and to estimate total freshwater flows into the Bay, (2) to study the wind effects on flows and on the storage characteristics of shallow streams along the coastline of northeastern Florida Bay, and (3) to provide hydrodynamic modelers with information on flow and salinity at selected locations.

Potential impacts and major products:
- Fact Sheets - Two Fact Sheets have been published for this study, Freshwater Flows into Florida Bay; (FS- 135-95) and Gaging Flows in Northeastern Florida Bay (FS-130-96). A third Fact Sheet, Distribution of Flows Along the Northeastern Coast of Florida Bay, is in review and additional Fact Sheets will be produced to describe and disseminate specific findings of the study on an as-needed basis.

- Water-Resources Investigation Report. Flow Patterns of Shallow Tidal Creeks in Northeastern Florida Bay, to be completed by the end of FY 1998, and published in FY 1999.

- Water Resources Investigation Report. Wind Effects and Storage Characteristics of Flow in a Shallow Tidal Stream of Northeastern Florida Bay, to be published by the end of FY 2001.

- Water Resources Investigation Report. Flow contribution of Taylor Slough and C-111 Canal to the Water Budget of Joe Bay, to be published by the end of FY 2001.

- Time-series records for water level, discharge, specific conductance, and temperature will be made available in electronic format and on a quarterly basis, starting in FY 1997 and continuing to the end of project.

- Records of monthly grab samples for nutrient analysis are available in electronic format from March 1996 and will continue to the end of project.

Collaborators: Clients include the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), Everglades National Park (ENP), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), South Florida Water Management District (SF WMD), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). Additional clients include university, county and other local research organizations.

WORK PLAN
Time line

FY 1999

- Continue ADCP discharge measurements for verification of AVM instrument calibrations, Oct. 1998 - Sept. 1999. Hittle. new hire.
- Continue collection of water samples for nutrient analysis. Oct. 1998 - Sept. 1999. Hittle, new hire.
- Continue computation of time-series record of discharge for all instrumented sites. Oct. 1998 - Sept. 1999. Hittle. Patino, new hire.
- Install flow and salinity monitoring site inside Taylor River (upstream of present station at the mouth) for the analysis of the ãstorageä factor in the shallow tidal reach of stream. Oct. - Dec. 1998. Hittle. Overholser.
- Perform ADCP discharge measurements at new Taylor River site and develop calibration ratings for discharge computations. December 1998 ÷ September 1999. Hittle. new hire.
- Start the data analysis to determine wind effects and storage characteristics of Taylor River. Oct. 1998 - Sept. 1999. Hittle, Patino.
- Begin discharge measurements and water samplings for isotope analysis in creeks discharging into Joe Bay to determine the source of water flowing out through Trout Creek. October 1998 - September 1999. Hittle. new hire.
- Begin discharge measurements through tide at Alligator Creek. October 1998 - September 1999. Hittle. new hire.
- Publish report ãFlow Patterns of Shallow Tidal Creeks in Northeastern Florida Bay,ä documenting data collection and analysis techniques by Sept. 1998. Patino.
 

FY 2000

- Continue ADCP discharge measurements for verification of AVM instrument calibrations. Oct. 1999 - Sept. 2000. Hittle, new hire.
- Continue collection of water samples for nutrient analysis. Oct. 1999 - Sept. 2000. Hittle. new hire
- Continue computation of time-series record of discharge for all instrumented sites. Oct. 1999 - Sept. 2000. Hittle. Patino. new hire
- Continue with data analysis to determine wind effects and storage characteristics of Taylor River. Oct. 1998 - Sept. 1999. Hittle, Patino.
- Continue with discharge measurements and water samplings for isotope analysis in creeks discharging into Joe Bay to determine the source of water flowing out through Trout Creek. October 1998 - September 1999. Hittle. new hire
- Begin writing paper ãWind Effects and Storage Characteristics of Flow in a Shallow Tidal Stream of
Northeastern Florida Bay.ä Hittle. Patino
- Begin writing paper ãFlow contribution of Taylor Slough and C-ill Canal to the Water Budget of Joe Bayä.
Hittle

FY 2001

- Continue ADCP discharge measurements for verification of AVM instrument calibrations, Oct. 2000 - Sept. 2001. Hittle. new hire.
- Continue collection of water samples for nutrient analysis. Oct. 2000 - Sept. 2001. Hittle. new hire.
- Continue computation of time-series record of discharge for all instrumented sites. Oct. 2000 - Sept. 2001. Hittle, Patino, new hire.
- Water Resources Investigation Report ãWind Effects and Storage Characteristics of Flow in a Shallow Tidal Stream of Northeastern Florida Bayä to be published by the end of FY 2001.
- Water Resources Investigation Report ãFlow contribution of Taylor Slough and C-111 Canal to the Water
Budget of Joe Bayä to be published by the end of FY 2001.

FY 1999 deliverables/products: The main two products resulting from this study during FY 1999 will be the report. ãFlow Patterns of Shallow Tidal Creeks in Northeastern Florida Bayä, and time series data. These data will include discharge, water level, salinity, and water temperature at all gaged sites and will be used for USGS, COE. and SFWMD model calibrations and for water quality studies by SFWMD and university researchers.

FY 1999 outreach: Continue personal contacts with research personnel from other Federal, State, county agencies. and universities. Will also participate at the annual ECO program symposium and Florida Bay Science Conference.

New directions or major changes for FY 1999:

Two of the main sources of freshwater flowing into northeastern Florida Bay, Taylor Slough and the C-111 Canal system, are directly tied to freshwater management practices along the L-31 West and C-111 canals. With recent changes in the water delivery system, specifically the removal of the southern levee along C-111 canal, and significant findings through discharge data analysis, it is now necessary to explore new avenues and modify the existing stream-gaging network. In addition to continuing all discharge/salinity stations presently monitored as part of the study, the following are proposed additions to the monitoring network and some additional investigation of the flow system.

Storage factor
Install an additional discharge/salinity station some distance upstream of the one at the mouth of Taylor River. This station will provide discharge and salinity data necessary to study the storage factor of streams in northeastern Florida Bay and the effects of wind events on flow patterns. In addition to this information on storage, this station will provide excellent calibration data for the SICS model area, and for the ãNutrient Flux and Nutrient Budgetä study being carried out by researchers from SFWMD, Florida International University (FIU), and Louisiana State University (LSU).

Taylor Slough and C-111 Canal
Because over 80 percent of the freshwater discharged into northeastern Florida Bay flows out of Joe Bay and Long Sound, two additional elements are proposed for the study. (1) Install an additional station in Long Sound (Stillwater Creek). With recent changes within the C-111 Canal system, it is necessary to install a second station in the western section of Long Sound. Adding this station will provide better information on the distribution of freshwater outflow along the C-111 southern bank into Long Sound. (2) Trout Creek. discharging from the southern end of Joe Bay has been identified as the most significant (in magnitude) source of freshwater outflow into northeastern Florida Bay. What is not known is whether the water entering Joe Bay comes mainly from Taylor Slough. C-111 canal, or local precipitation. Determining the source of freshwater into Joe Bay will enable water managers to develop strategies for water deliveries during different climatic conditions. As part of this new task we are proposing periodic discharge measurements and collection of water samples at selected sites along the northern coast of Joe Bay. Water samples will also be collected at Taylor Slough Bridge (park road) and C-111 canal. with chemical analyzes done on all water samples collected.

Other
Alligator Creek is unfeasible for continuous monitoring due to access limitations for instrument maintenance. Instead, periodic discharge measurements will be made in order to perform correlation analyzes between flows at Alligator Creek and those at McCormick creek to the east. Discharge measurement events will be concentrated during the ãwetä season, with at least two measurement sets during the ãdryä season. Results from this effort will also provide more definition of flows at this site for the SICS model calibrations.
 
 
 
 
 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS, OUTCOMES, PRODUCTS, OUTREACH

FY 1998 accomplishments and outcomes, including outreach

- ADCP discharge measurements were made under a variety of hydrologic conditions at all sites along the mangrove zone covering the coastal area from Highway US-1 in the east to McCormick Creek in Terrapin Bay to the west.

- ADCP discharge measurements were made at The Jewfish Creek site and acoustic velocity calibration completed.

- Discharge time-series were produced for all five instrumented sites from the beginning of record through April 1998. Data is available from the ECO program web page.

- ADCP discharge measurements were made at the culverts under US-1 in conjunction with SICS area model measuring activities. Discharge ratings for the calculation of east/west flow exchange across the road are not feasible at this time due to data availability.

- Monthly water samples were collected at all instrumented sites for nutrient analysis.

- Poster, ãDistribution of Flows in Northeastern Florida Bay.ä presented at Florida Bay Science Conference, May 12- 14. 1998, Miami, Florida.

- Abstract on the poster above to be published in conference proceedings.

- Fact Sheet, ãDistribution of Flows along the Northeastern Coast of Florida Bay,ä in review.

- Report, ãFlow Patterns of Shallow Tidal Creeks in Northeastern Florida Bay,ä to be completed by Sept. 1998.

PROJECT SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
Names and expertise of key project staff:

- Eduardo Patino (may share responsibilities as co-project leader); Hydrologist, principal investigator (FY 1995 - FY2001)

- Clinton Hittle; Hydrologist, surface water experience (FY1997 - FY2001)

- New hire. Hydrologist, project assistant (FY 1999 - FY 2001)

Major equipment/facility needs: None


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