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Project Work Plan

Department of Interior USGS GE PES
Fiscal Year 2012 Study Work Plan

Study Title: Freshwater Flows to Northeastern Florida Bay Greater Everglades Restoration and Estuarine Response to CERP
Study Start Date: FY 1995
Study End Date: TBD
Web Sites:www.sofia.usgs.gov (http://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/freshwtr_flow/)
Location (Subregions, Counties, Park or Refuge): Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties, Florida, Everglades National Park
Funding Source: USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (USGS GE PES) Program
Other Complementary Funding Source(s): U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) C-111 Project, USACE RECOVER Program, Everglades National Park (ENP)-Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative (CESI)
Funding History: FY98; FY99; FY00 (PBS+CESI); FY01 (PBS+COE); FY02 (PBS+COE); FY03 (PBS+COE); FY04 (PBS+COE); FY05 (PES+COE); FY06 (PES+COE, ENP-CESI); FY07 (PES+COE, ENP-CESI); FY08 (PES+COE); FY09 (PES+COE); FY10 (PES+COE); FY11 (PES+COE); FY12 (PES).
Principal Investigator(s): Mark Zucker and Jeff Woods
Study Personnel: Christian Lopez, Shane Ploos, Carrie Boudreau, Stephen Huddleston, Chany Adrianza, Amarys Acosta
Supporting Organizations: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Everglades National Park (ENP), South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD)
Associated/Linked Studies: Southwest Florida Coastal and Wetland Systems Monitoring, Coastal Gradients of Flow, Salinity, and Nutrients, Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME), Integrating EDEN with Real-Time Hydrology and Biological Responses, FIU-Long Term Ecological Research (LTER), ENP Marine Monitoring Network, SFWMD Everglades Program, SFWMD Minimum Flows and Levels for Florida Bay, CERP C-111 Spreader Canal, C-111 South Dade Project, CERP Florida Bay/Florida Keys Feasibility Study, Recover Greater Everglades Module, and Recover Southern Coastal Systems Module.

Overview & Objective(s):
The project objectives are to:

(1) Determine the quantity, timing and distribution of freshwater flow through estuarine creeks into northeastern Florida Bay before and after the CERP restoration.

(2) Provide up to 120 days of real-time hydrologic data for Everglades modelers, scientists, managers, and the public.

(3) Provide published unit value data on the South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website via the South Florida Hydrology Data Download web portal

(4) Provide daily minimum and maximum water level, salinity, temperature, discrete water quality data, and where applicable, filtered daily mean discharge on the National Water Information System web portal (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis)

(5) Provide peer reviewed site data sheets published annually as part of the USGS Annual Water Data Report (http://wdr.water.usgs.gov/). Site data sheets complement the data published on the National Water Information System (NWIS). For example, site data sheets provide descriptive information pertinent to the station operation, tables of daily values, tabular statistical summary of monthly mean flow data, statistics on instantaneous or annual flow, and where applicable, hydrographs. Published site data sheets or manuscripts not available on the Mapper are available in hard copy form or at the links provided below.

http://pubs.usgs.gov/wdr/,
http://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=freshwtr_flow#publications

(6) Continue the use/testing of acoustic technology for measuring flow in estuarine systems and other water quality applications to improve the computation of continuous water quality records.

(7) Continue to participate in the USGS Surface Water and Hydroacoustics Conference, GEER, NCER, CERP module meetings, the USGS Quality of Water Instrumentation Committee (QWIC) and other workshops. (8) Continue scientific collaborations with various federal, state, and local agencies. (9) Provide published data and scientific findings for the CERP System Status Report.

Specific Relevance to Major Unanswered Questions and Information Needs Identified:
Flow, water level, salinity, and temperature data are collected at the estuarine creeks that connect the Everglades wetland with Florida Bay. The project provides flow data to address the quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of flow to the bay. Addressing the nutrient budget of Florida Bay requires accurate flow information. The USACE, SFWMD, USGS, ENP and other agencies including universities currently are using published hydrologic and water quality data to answer specific research questions that will directly benefit the Everglades restoration effort (e.g. SFWMD South Florida Environmental Report (SFER), Southern Coastal Systems module, Time and Fathom models).

This study supports several of the projects listed in the Department of the Interior (DOI) science plan (specifically, the C-111 Spreader Canal and Florida Bay and Florida Keys Feasibility Study) by (1) providing baseline hydrologic data for model calibration and verification, and for resource management (e.g. salinity performance measure); (2) providing long-term hydrologic and water quality data to determine trends in hydrologic response to storms, sea-level rise, and CERP restoration; (3) quantifying discharge at estuarine creeks to answer quantity, timing and distribution questions; (4) quantifying discharge at estuarine creeks for nutrient load calculations; (5) providing temperature data for biological and climate change studies; and (6) providing salinity data for assessment purposes (e.g. performance measures).

Three restoration questions were stated in the executive summary of the DOI science plan (p. 1) and maximizing cost-share opportunities and science coordination were emphasized. This study supports restoration question 1: "What actions will improve the quantity, timing, and distribution of clean freshwater needed to restore the South Florida ecosystem?" The overall coastal monitoring network provides flow data for the majority of estuarine creeks in northeastern Florida Bay as well as the southwest coast of Florida. The timing and distribution of freshwater deliveries to northeastern Florida Bay has been documented since 1996. In 2003, the USGS Coastal Group also began calculating nutrient loads at selected sites in northeastern Florida Bay and along the southwestern Everglades coast. The larger network has provided discharge data to the scientific community to develop nutrient budgets (Rudnick, 1999; Sutula and others, 2003; Davis, 2004; Levesque, 2004)

USGS synthesis teams have been coordinated to assess nutrient flux to south Florida coastal ecosystems (McPherson and others, 2006) and to conduct data mining and modeling to separate human and natural hydrologic dynamics (Conrads and others, 2005). The need to comprehensively address recent algal blooms in Blackwater Sound and adjacent basins has fostered a collaborative effort between the USGS and federal, state, and local partners to determine the source of the problem and understand the persistence of the blooms (SFWMD, 2006). More recently, synoptic studies have been performed to evaluate mercury fluxes to the southwest coast of Florida utilizing available flow data near the coast.

The DOI science plan has provided four criteria for prioritizing the science needs for restoration and resource management (p. 11). The criteria and the applicability of the Freshwater Flows to Northeastern Florida Bay project to each are summarized below.

1) The relevance of the science effort to improving understanding of the ecological and hydrological processes affecting DOI lands and resources. This project has been tasked since 1995 to develop techniques to measure and compute continuous discharge affected by wind and tide along the south Florida coast. Methods have been developed to quantify coastal discharges (Hittle and others, 2001; Morlock and others, 2002) and published data has been shared with the scientific community to improve our understanding of the south Florida estuaries. Additional research benefits include the methods development for nutrient loads at three estuarine creeks (Shoemaker and others, 2005); the evaluation of estuarine creek responses during the 2004–2005 hurricane season (Woods and others 2006); and the evaluation of minimum flows and levels in Florida Bay using real-time data from the NWIS (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/fl/nwis/rt). More recently, the availability of real-time tidally filtered flows are being utilized by universities to continuously update forecast models run by the University of South Florida.

2) The applicability of the science to multiple DOI restoration objectives or multiple projects. This project provides datasets for (1) various modeling efforts (SICS, TIME, Florida Bay Hydrodynamic Model, Fathom) utilized by the USGS, USACE, ENP, SFWMD, and FIU; (2) calculation of nutrient loads by FIU and SFWMD; and (3) salinity box modeling by Marshall and others (2002) and Nuttle (2002); (4) real-time data to SFWMD to evaluate the water management operations (Minimum Flows and Levels) and the SFWMD South Florida Environmental Report; and (5) CERP restoration projects such as the C-111 Spreader Canal Project. In addition, research on mercury loads to Florida Bay utilized computed flow data (Rumbold and others, 2011). More recently, the availability of flow data prior to and after the 2005 hurricane season was critical for the assessment of recent algal blooms along US-1 near Key Largo (South Florida Water Management District, 2006). The published data on SOFIA and the continuation of the monitoring network is critical as restoration continues.

3) Synthesis and sequencing to address the most urgent management information needs. The project supports various synthesis and modeling efforts. Examples of USGS synthesis projects include the Compilation, Integration, and Synthesis of Water Quality and Flow Data for Assessing Nutrient Flux to South Florida Coastal Ecosystems project, and the Hydrology Monitoring Network: Data Mining and Modeling to Separate Human and Natural Hydrologic Dynamics project, and the Coastal Optimization Study. Other synthesis projects utilizing our datasets include (1) the SFWMD South Florida Environmental Report; (2) the FIU Long Term Ecological Research, Florida Coastal Everglades project; (3) the Florida Bay and Florida Keys Feasibility Study.

4) Maximization of cost-share opportunities and science coordination across bureaus or with DOI's CERP partners. The northeastern Florida Bay coastal network is one component of a larger integrated network that includes the Southwest Florida Coastal and Wetland Systems Monitoring project (Shark Slough) and the Coastal Gradients of Flow, Salinity, and Nutrients project. These interdependent projects have allowed for a more sustainable long-term data and research program than would otherwise be possible. This project receives funding from PES and USACE RECOVER program, and benefited from NPS CESI and USACE C-111 Project funding for work completed in Florida Bay and Joe Bay. Funding for the Southwest Florida Coastal and Wetland Systems Monitoring project is fully funded by PES, whereas the Coastal Gradients of Flow, Salinity, and Nutrients project is fully funded by USACE RECOVER. These funding sources have allowed the USGS PES to commit to funding levels for future years.

This study supports the CERP C-111 Spreader Canal and CSOP projects (p. 71), as it provides (1) baseline data (flow, salinity, and rainfall) for change detection throughout the construction process and modeling, (2) critical coastal discharge data for water quality assessments such as nutrient loads, and (3) hydrologic data to calibrate models or verify models for predictions of salinity.

This study supports the Florida Bay and Florida Keys Feasibility Study (p. 77) as it provides (1) baseline data to address the quantity, timing and distribution of freshwater flow to Florida Bay-one of DOI questions of interest stated in the executive summary; (2) basic hydrologic data to assist with model calibration and verification (p. 78) of the Florida Bay Hydrodynamic (Florida Bay and Florida Keys Feasibility Study) and the USGS (TIME), SICS, and Fathom models; and (3) critical coastal discharge data for studies of nutrient, pesticide, and mercury loads.

The USGS Science in the Decade 2007–2017 Circular 1309 report introduces six science based themes. Two science based themes (1) Understanding ecosystem and predicting ecosystem change: and (2) climate variability and change are relevant to Everglades restoration. An important step to understanding critical ecosystems includes monitoring, assessment, and evaluation of trends within the natural ecosystem through the use of objective, scientifically based methods (p. 5). Climate change is an important process to account for, especially as Everglades restoration continues into the future. The report highlighted the importance of creating, expanding, and modernizing observation networks using new technologies for long-term observations that respond to climate change (p. 18). The Freshwater Flows to Northeastern Florida Bay Project operates and maintains a coastal network that can be integrated with other data networks to address ecosystem change and evaluate the impact of climate change on Everglade's restoration. The coastal network can accommodate new emerging technologies, address relevant scientific inquiries, and promote collaborative science to address ecosystem and climate change.

Status: Ongoing

Recent Products: For additional project information please visit http://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=freshwtr_flow#data

(1) Published unit values of surface water level, discharge, salinity, and temperature data are available from 1996 to 2010 on the USGS South Florida Hydrology Data Download. http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/zucker_woods_patino/index.php

(2) Published unit and daily values of water level, specific conductance, and temperature data for seven groundwater stations (G-3776, G-3777, G-3764, G-3763, MO-198, MO-199, and MO-211) from water year 2002 to 2010. (http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/realtime_gw/location.html)

(3) Published WRI 01-4164: Freshwater flow from estuarine creeks into northeastern Florida Bay.

(4) Selected site data sheets or manuscripts published in the USGS Annual Water Data Report 2006–2010.

(5) Published USGS Data Series Report 105: Northeastern Florida Bay Estuarine Creek Data, Water Years 1996–2000.

(6) Published fact sheet FS2004-3129: Hydrologic Characteristics of Estuarine River Systems within Everglades National Park.

(7) Published article in USGS Circular 1306 titled Estuarine Response in Northeastern Florida Bay to Major Hurricanes in 2005.

(8) Abstract and poster titled Northeastern Florida Bay Estuarine and Joe Bay Estuarine Creek Data, 2001–2005 and [abstract and poster titled] Northeastern Florida Bay Estuarine Creek Response During the 2004–05 Hurricane Season was presented at the 2006 GEER Conference in June 2006.

(9) Published conference paper "Sediment Transport on Cape Sable, Everglades National Park, Florida" (from the Proceedings of the Joint Federal Interagency Conference, July 2010.

(10) South Florida Hydrology Data Download website is the unit value data repository for the integrated coastal monitoring network.

(11) Collaborative journal article titled Importance of storm events in controlling ecosystem structure and function in a Florida gulf coast estuary: Journal of Coastal Research, 20(3), 1198–1208. By Davis III, S.E.; Cable, J.E.; Childers, D.L.; Coronado-Molina, C.; Day Jr., J.W.; Hittle, C.D.; Madden,C.J.; Reyes, E.; Rudnick, D., and Sklar, F., 2004.

(12) Collaborative journal article titled: Source Identification of Florida Bay's Methylmercury Problem: Mainland Runoff Versus Atmospheric Deposition and In situ Production: Rumbold, D.G; Evans, D.W.; Niemczyk, S.; Fink, L.E.; Laine, K.A.; Howard, N.; Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Zucker, M., 2011. Estuaries and Coasts, 34:494-513.

Planned Products:

(1) Operate and maintain 10 monitoring stations for the collection of water level, water velocity, specific conductance, salinity, and temperature. Data will be transmitted to the NWIS Web hourly. Data will be computed, checked, and published according to continuous records processing (CRP).

(2) Collect at a minimum quarterly discharge measurements using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Continue to develop and verify index velocity ratings used to quantify estuarine flow.

(3) Publish unit values of water level, discharge, salinity, and temperature for water year 2011 available on South Florida Hydrology Data Download no later than April 2012.

(4) Site data sheets for water year 2011 to be published in the Annual Water Data Report (http://wdr.water.usgs.gov/)

(5) Continue collaboration on the optimization of the coastal monitoring network and methods to detect change in the coastal environment.

(6) Provide published data upon request to the scientific community and the general public. Continue to collaborate with the south Florida scientific community, specifically the SFWMD and the Southern Coastal System Module to provide data and scientific results to be published in the SFER and CERP System Status Report, respectively.

(7) Provide annual report as part of the MAP deliverables and ENP permit process.

(8) Complete SIR titled Coastal Flow, Salinity, and Nutrient Gradients in Everglades National Park, 1996-2009.

WORK PLAN

Title of Task 1: Gauging Freshwater Flows into Northeastern Florida Bay
Task Funding: USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES)
Task Leaders: Mark Zucker, Jeff Woods
Phone: 954-377-5952, 954-377-5950
FAX: 954-377-5901
Task Status (proposed or active): Active and ongoing
Task priority: High
Time Frame for Task 1:
Task Personnel: Christian Lopez, Shane Ploos, Carrie Boudreau, Stephen Huddleston, Chany Adrianza, Amarys Acosta

Task Summary and Objectives: Task 1 includes measuring and quantifying freshwater flow from the Everglades wetlands into northeastern Florida Bay. Flow, water level, salinity and temperature data are collected in real time at monitoring sites in estuarine creeks. Data are transmitted hourly via GOES telemetry to the Florida Science Center in Ft. Lauderdale.

The objectives are:

(1) Determine the quantity, timing and distribution of freshwater flow through estuarine creeks into northeastern Florida Bay (the Florida Bay and Florida Keys Feasibility Study (p. 77).

(2) Provide hourly real-time data via the NWIS Web and provide data to Everglades/Florida Bay modelers and researchers upon request.

(3) Advance and test acoustic and water quality instrumentation and methods in coastal environments.

(4) Continue to collaborate with federal, state, and local agencies on Everglades's restoration issues.

(5) Participate in the CERP module meetings (Southern Coastal Systems), conferences, workshops, and provide logistical support for studies utilizing the coastal network (e.g. mercury studies).

(6) Publish collected data in the USGS Annual Data Report.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Data collection includes continuous 15-minute interval measurements of water level, water velocity, salinity, temperature data and periodic measurements of discharge for acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) calibrations. Field data at the instrumented sites are recorded by an electronic data logger and transmitted hourly by way of the GOES telemetry.

Boat mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) are used to measure discharge. The ADCP uses the Doppler shift in returned acoustic signals reflected by particles suspended in the water to determine the velocity of moving water. Discharge and flow direction are calculated using the Doppler software package. The mean channel water velocity is calculated by dividing the ADCP determined discharge by the cross-sectional area determined by the water level at the time of measurement. The cross-sectional area is computed by using the site-specific stage-area ratings, which are a function of water level. Water-level data are collected with an incremental shaft encoder equipped with a pulley, stainless-steel tape, weight, and float inside an 8-in (inch) polyvinyl chloride pipe stilling well. Water level also is collected using pressure sensors and vertical acoustic transducers.

Salinity and temperature data are collected with multiparameter sondes. During routine station visits, these in situ instruments are cleaned and verified with laboratory standards. Fouling and electronic errors are documented and corrections are applied accordingly. Storage, processing, and publication of continuous monitoring data follow USGS guidelines (Sauer, 2002; Wagner and others, 2006). A reference meter is used during each field trip to verify the in situ field meter. The reference meter thermistor is checked against a NIST laboratory certified thermistor prior to each field trip.

Specific Task Product(s): Published unit values of water level, discharge, salinity, and temperature for water year 2011 will be available on SOFIA by April 2011. Filtered daily mean discharge will be published on the NWIS database for tidally affected sites. Daily minimum and maximum values of salinity and temperature will be published on NWIS. Manuscripts (site data sheets) will be published in the Annual Water Data Report (http://wdr.water.usgs.gov/) by March 31, 2012. Index velocity rating development and verification will continue at selected sites.

Title of Task 2: Network Optimization Project in Southern Florida
Task Funding: USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES)
Task Leaders: Ken Odom, Paul Conrads, Mark Zucker, Jeff Woods, Ed Patino
Phone: 954-377-5952, 954-377-5950
FAX: 954-377-5901
Task Status (proposed or active): Active and ongoing
Task priority: TBD

Task Summary and Objectives: Objectives include (1) data gathering of historical data, site information, GIS information, and other qualitative information required for the optimization; (2) statistical analysis including descriptive statistics, principle components, and cluster analysis; (3) network optimization using simulated annealing; (4) temporal optimization; (5) report focusing on statistical analysis and methods utilized in the study and an interpretive report on the optimization study.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: The major task this fiscal year includes the publication of the methods and statistical results of the optimization study.

Specific Task Product(s): An Open-File Report or journal article discussing the statistical analysis or site scoring based on statistics. Continue collaboration with EDEN project staff on the network optimization which includes the development of methods useful for detecting changes (e.g. sea-level rise, trends) and coastal EDEN. The following products presented at GEER 2010 and the USGS Surface Conference 2011, respectively.

Abstract and presentation titled: Analysis of the USGS Coastal Gradient Real-time Gage Network
Presentation titled: Analysis of the USGS Coastal Gradient Real-time Gage Network

Title of Task 3: Raulerson Brothers Canal-Cape Sable
Task Funding: USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES)
Task Leaders: Mark Zucker
Phone: 954-377-5952
FAX: 954-377-5901
Task Status (proposed or active): Active and ongoing
Task priority: High
Time Frame for Task 3:
Task Summary and Objectives: Funding was provided in fiscal year 2011 but funding was deferred to fiscal year 2012 due to issues in acquiring a research permit from ENP. A research permit was acquired in August 2011 and the monitoring station was constructed in September 2011. Real-time monitoring is ongoing.

The Objectives are (1) collect continuous in situ velocity data using an acoustic Doppler velocity meter to assess the impact of the breach in the earthen plug; (2) collect continuous water-quality data to assess the impact of the breach in the earthen plug on sediment transport between Lake Ingraham and the interior wetlands pending funding support from other cooperative partners; (3) develop surrogate relations between turbidity and suspended sediment to estimate sediment discharge load pending funding support from other cooperative partners.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Data collection includes continuous 15-minute interval measurements of water level, water velocity, salinity, temperature, turbidity, and periodic measurements of discharge for acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) calibrations. Additional suspended sediment samples will be collected to develop turbidity surrogate relations. Field data at the instrumented sites are recorded by an electronic data logger and transmitted hourly by way of the GOES telemetry.

Boat mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) are used to measure discharge. The ADCP uses the Doppler shift in returned acoustic signals reflected by particles suspended in the water to determine the velocity of moving water. Discharge and flow direction are calculated using the Doppler software package. The mean channel water velocity is calculated by dividing the ADCP determined discharge by the cross-sectional area determined by the water level at the time of measurement. The cross-sectional area is computed by using the site-specific stage-area ratings, which are a function of water level. Water-level data are collected with a vertical acoustic stage transducer.

Salinity, temperature, and turbidity data are collected with multiparameter sondes. During routine station visits, these in situ instruments are cleaned and verified with laboratory standards. Fouling and electronic errors are documented and corrections are applied accordingly. Storage, processing, and publication of continuous monitoring data follow USGS guidelines (Sauer, 2002; Wagner and others, 2006). A reference meter (YSI) is used during each field trip to verify in situ field meter. The reference thermistor is checked against a NIST laboratory certified thermistor prior to each field trip. Turbidity data will be collected, processed, and published following guidelines by Rasmussen and others, 2009.

Specific Task Product(s):
(1) Operate and maintain Raulerson Brothers Canal for the collection of water level, water velocity, and discrete measurements of specific conductance, salinity, and temperature.
(2) Collect discharge measurements using an acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) to develop an index velocity rating. Continue to develop and verify index velocity ratings necessary to quantify estuarine flow.
(3) Deploy the LISST 25X to collect continuous suspended sediment volume concentrations over various tidal cycles.
(4) Publish unit values of water level, discharge, salinity, and temperature for water year 2012 available on South Florida Hydrology Data Download no later than April 2012.
(5) Provide estimates of net discharge and sediment discharge load to support the larger Cape Sable restoration effort.
(6) Provide published data to the scientific community and the general public. Continue to collaborate with the south Florida scientific community.

References

Conrads, P.A. and Roehl, E., 2005. Analysis of the process physics of tributaries to Florida Bay using artificial neural networks and three-dimensional response surfaces, in Proceedings from the Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Conference (Hawk's Cay Resort, Florida) December 11–14, 2005.

Davis III, S.E.; Cable, J.E.; Childers, D.L.; Coronado-Molina, C.; Day, J.W.; Hittle, C.D.; Madden, C.J.; Reyes, E., Rudnick, D., and Sklar, F., 2004. Importance of storm events in controlling ecosystem structure and function in a Florida gulf coast estuary. Journal of Coastal Research, v. 20, no. 3, p. 263–273.

Davis, S.; Childers, C.; Rugge, M.; Woods, J., and Zucker, M., 2006. Hurricane/storm driven hydrology and materials exchange in the estuarine transition zone of the Florida coastal Everglades (FCE), in Proceedings from the 2006 LTER All Scientists Conference (Estes Park, Colorado).

Hittle, C.D., 2000. Magnitude and Distribution of Flows into Northeastern Florida Bay. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 030-00, 4p.

Hittle, C.D.; Patino, Eduardo, and Zucker, Mark, 2001. Freshwater Flow from Estuarine Creeks into Northeastern Florida Bay. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation Report 01-4164, 32p.

Hittle, C.D. and Zucker, Mark, 2004. Northeastern Florida Bay Estuarine Creek Data, Water Years 1996–2000. U.S.Geological Survey Data Series Report 105.

Levesque, V.A., 2004. Water Flow and Nutrient Flux from Five Estuarine Rivers along the Southwest Coast of Everglades National Park, Florida, 1997–2001. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5142, 24p.

Marshall III, F.E.; Smith, D., and Nickerson, D., 2003. Salinity simulation models for north Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, in Proceedings from the Joint Conference on the Science and Restoration of the Greater Everglades and Florida Bay Ecosystem Conference. (Palm Harbor, Florida) April 13–18, 2003 53p.

McPherson, B.F. and Torres, A.E., 2006. Freshwater and Nutrient Fluxes to Coastal Waters of Everglades National Park-A Synthesis. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2006-3076, 4p.

Morlock, S.E.; Nguyen, H.T., and Ross, J.H., 2002. Feasibility of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters for the Production of Discharge Records from U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4157

Nuttle, W.K., 2002. Salinity-based performance measures project: Report #6: Estuarine salinity models in the Taylor Slough/C111 area. Technical report prepared for Everglades National Park.

Rasmussen, P.P.; Gray, J.R.; Glysson, G.D., and Ziegler, A.C., 2009. Guidelines and Procedures for Computing Time-Series Suspended-Sediment Concentrations and Loads from In-Stream Turbidity-Sensor and Streamflow Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods book 3, chapter C4, 54p.

Rudnick, D.T.; Childers, D.L., and Fontaine III, T.D., 1999. Phosphorus and nitrogen inputs to Florida Bay: The importance of the Everglades watershed. Estuaries, v. 22, no. 2B, pp. 398–416.

Rumbold, D.G.; Evans, D.W.; Niemczyk, S.; Fink, L.E.; Laine. K.A.; Howard, N.; Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Zucker, M., 2011. Source identification of Florida Bay's methylmercury problem: Mainland runoff versus atmospheric deposition and in situ production. Estuaries and Coasts, 34:494–513. http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/mehg_source/index.html

Sauer, V.B., 2002. Standards for the Analysis and Processing of Surface-Water Data and Information Using Electronic Methods: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4044.

Shoemaker, B.S.; Zucker, M., and Stumpner, P., 2005. Estimates of Nutrient Loads at West Highway Creek in Northeastern Florida Bay, in Proceedings from the Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Conference. (Hawk's Cay, Florida) December 11–14, 2005.

South Florida Water Management District, 2006. Report on Algae Blooms in Eastern Florida Bay and Southern Bay. West Palm Beach:Technical report Prepared by the Coastal Ecosystems Division.

Sutula, M.A.; Perez, B.C.; Reyes, E.; Childers, D.L.; Davis, S.; Day, J.R.; Rudnick, D., and Sklar, F., 2003. Factors affecting spatial and temporal variability in material exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay (USA). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 57:757–781.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2007. Facing Tomorrow's Challenges–U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007–2017. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1309, 70p.

Wagner, R.J.; Boulger, W.R., and Smith, B.A., 2000. Revised Guidelines and Standard Procedures for Continuous Water-Quality Monitors: Site selection, field operation, calibration, record computation, and reporting. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 9, chapter B.

Woods, J., and Zucker, M., 2006. Northeastern Florida Bay Estuarine Creek Response During the 2004–05 Hurricane Season, in Proceedings from the 2006 Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration Conference (Lake Buena Vista, Florida) June 5–9, 2006.

Zucker, M., 2003. Using Hydrologic Correlation as a Tool to Estimate Flow at Non-Instrumented Estuarine Creeks in Northeastern Florida Bay, in Proceedings from the Joint Conference on the Science and Restoration of the Greater Everglades and Florida Bay Ecosystem Conference (Palm Harbor, Florida) April 13–18, 2003.

Zucker, M. and Woods, J., 2006. Northeastern Florida Bay Estuarine and Joe Bay Estuarine Creek Data, 2001–2005, in Proceedings from the 2006 Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration Conference (Lake Buena Vista, Florida).