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projects > linking a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model of the biscayne aquifer to ground-water flow simulations within the greater everglades from everglades national park to biscayne national park-phase 1 > work plan

Project Work Plan

Department of Interior USGS GE PES and ENP CESI

Fiscal Year 2006 Study Work Plan

Study Title: Linking a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model of the Biscayne aquifer to ground-water flow simulations from Everglades National Park to Biscayne National Park - Phase 1
Study Start Date: Oct. 1, 2005 Study End Date: Sept. 30, 2009
Web Sites: See http://sofia.usgs.gov/people/cunningham.html for information on principal investigator.
Location (Subregions, Counties, Park or Refuge): SE Florida, Miami-Dade County, includes ENP & BNP
Funding Source: USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES) and ENP Critical Ecosystems Studies Initiative (CESI)
Other Complementary Funding Source: None
Funding History: FY06
Principal Investigator: Kevin J. Cunningham
Study Personnel: Melinda A. Wolfert, Christian D. Langevin, G. Lynn Wingard, Edward Robinson, Michael A. Wacker, Joann F. Dixon
Supporting Organizations: None
Associated / Linked Studies: Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project, L31N/L30 Seepage Management Pilot Project, Everglades National Park Seepage Management Project, Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheetflow Enhancement Project, Lake Belt In-Ground Reservoir Technology Pilot Project, and Landscape-Scale Science Needed to Support Multiple CERP Projects.

Overview & Objectives: Research is needed to determine how planned CERP seepage control actions within the triple-porosity karstic Biscayne aquifer in the general area of Northeast Shark Slough will affect ground-water flows and recharge between the Everglades wetlands and Biscayne Bay. A fundamental problem in the simulation of karst ground-water flow and solute transport is how best to represent aquifer heterogeneity as defined by the spatial distribution of porosity, permeability, and storage. The triple porosity of the Biscayne aquifer is principally: (1) matrix of interparticle and separate-vug porosity, providing much of the storage and, under dynamic conditions, diffuse-carbonate flow; (2) touching-vug porosity creating stratiform ground-water flow passageways; and (3) less common conduit porosity composed mainly of bedding plane vugs, thin solution pipes, and cavernous vugs. The objectives of this project are to: (1) build on the Lake Belt area hydrogeologic framework (recently completed by the principal investigator), mainly using cyclostratigraphy and digital optical borehole images to map porosity types and develop the triple-porosity karst framework between the Everglades wetlands and Biscayne Bay; and (2) develop procedures for numerical simulation of ground-water flow within the Biscayne aquifer multi-porosity system.

Specific Relevance to Major Unanswered Questions and Information Needs Identified: This study supports several projects listed in the DOI science plan (specifically: Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project, L31N/L30 Seepage Management Pilot Project, Everglades National Park Seepage Management Project, Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheetflow Enhancement Project, Lake Belt In-Ground Reservoir Technology Pilot Project, and Landscape-Scale Science Needed to Support Multiple CERP Projects) by including development of procedures for numerical simulations of ground-water flow in the karst Biscayne aquifer from the Northeast Shark Slough area, where the CERP L31N/L30 Seepage Management Pilot Project and Everglades National Park Seepage Management Projects will alter current hydropatterns in ENP, and seepage to the east. The development of an expanded conceptual karst hydrogeologic framework planned in this proposal will be used to assist development of procedures for numeric simulations to improve the monitoring and assessment of the response of the ground-water system to hydrologic changes caused by seepage-management pilot project implementation. Specifically, the development of procedures for ground-water modeling of the karst Biscayne aquifer in the area of Northern Shark Slough will help determine the appropriate hydrologic response to rainfall and translate that information into appropriate performance targets for input into the design and operating rules to manage water levels and flow volumes for the two Seepage Management Areas. Mapping of the karstic stratiform ground-water flow passageways in the Biscayne aquifer is recent and limited to a small area of Miami-Dade County adjacent to the Everglades wetlands (Cunningham and others, 2005a,b). Extension of this karst framework between the Everglades wetlands and coastal Biscayne Bay will aid in the simulation of coupled ground water and surface-water flows to Biscayne Bay. These development of procedures for modeling in the karst Biscayne aquifer will useful to the establishment of minimum flows and levels to the bay and seasonal flow patterns. Also, these improved procedures for simulations will assist in ecologic modeling efforts of Biscayne Bay coastal estuaries.

This study supports the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project (BBCW ; p. 84-85) as it (1) will provide a new karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer that will be used in development of new procedures for hydrologic modeling in the karst Biscayne aquifer that includes areas adjacent to and within Biscayne Bay; (2) provides data and development of procedures for hydrologic modeling that will be useful in establishing and managing water quality performance targets in Biscayne Bay; and (3) provides data and development of procedures for hydrologic modeling that can be used in research to understand the links between the hydrology and ecology of Biscayne Bay.

This study supports the L31N/L30 Seepage Management Pilot Project and Everglades National Park Seepage Management Project (L-31N/L-30N SMPP and ENP SM p. 55-56) as it (1) provides wells and development of procedures for modeling in the karst Biscayne aquifer that will benefit monitoring and assessment of the pilot projects information needs; (2) produces wells, a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework, and development of procedures for hydrologic modeling that can be used in research and possible model refinement to establish operating protocols of the seepage barriers; (3) produces wells, a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework, and procedures for hydrologic modeling that can be used by researchers to define how back pumping and ground-water hydraulic gradients affect the flow of water and ground-water recharge in the surficial aquifer; and (4) produces wells, a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework, and procedures for hydrologic modeling in the karst Biscayne aquifer that will benefit additional research and modeling that is needed to determine how extensive seepage control actions will affect ground-water flows and recharge within the surficial aquifer and ultimate delivery of ground-water between the Everglades and Biscayne Bay.

This study supports the Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheetflow Enhancement Project (DECOMP ; p. 78-79) as it (1) provides data for research to understand the linkages among the geologic, hydrologic, chemical, climatological, and biological processes that shaped the predrainage Everglades and will produce data that can help to understand and reduce the effects of hydrologic seepage barriers on ecological connectivity and (2) produces data useful in research to understand and reduce the effects of hydrologic barriers on ecological connectivity.

This study supports the Lake Belt In-Ground Reservoir Technology Pilot Project (p. 52) as it provides information that will be helpful in assessing the effectiveness of seepage barriers needed in construction of Lake Belt reservoirs.

This study supports Landscape-Scale Science Needed to Support Multiple CERP Projects (p. 96) as it (1) provides development of procedures for ground-water modeling that is needed to address historical, current, and projected ground-water flows between the Everglades and Biscayne Bay; (2) provides a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework of the karst Biscayne aquifer that will be used development of procedures for higher resolution hydrologic model that can help in the ability to predict how fish and wildlife will respond to a given restoration project; and (3) provides new data and development of procedures for hydrologic modeling that can be useful for further modeling and monitoring of the surficial aquifer for the quantitative assessment and monitoring of seepage into the surficial aquifer.

Status: New project starting in FY06

Recent Products: Several recent relevant publications that are linked to the study area and project goals: (1) Cunningham, K.J., Renken, R.A., Wacker, M.A., and others, 2006, Application of carbonate cyclostratigraphy and borehole geophysics to delineate porosity and preferential flow in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, SE Florida. Geological Society of America Special Paper-Karst Hydrology and Geomorphology in North America Over the Past Half Century: in press; (2) Cunningham, K.J., 2005, Scientific Investigations Report, in press; (3) Cunningham, K.J., Carlson, J.L., Wingard, G.L., and others, 2004, Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity using cyclostratigraphy and geophysical methods in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida: relation to rock fabric and sequence stratgraphy. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4208, 46 p; and (4) Cunningham, K.J., Wacker, M.A., Robinson, Edward, and others, 2004, Hydrogeology and ground-water flow at Levee-31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida, July 2003 to May 2004. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map I-2846, 1 sheet.

Planned Products: Several white paper articles reporting on results.

WORK PLAN

Title of Task 1: Drilling of 14 test coreholes
Task Funding:
USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES) and ENP Critical Ecosystems Studies Initiative (CESI)
Task Leaders: Kevin J. Cunningham
Phone: 954-377-5913
FAX: 954-377-5901
Task Status): Proposed
Task priority: High
Time Frame for Task 1:
Task Personnel: Kevin J. Cunningham, Michael A. Wacker
Task Summary and Objectives: Drill and complete approximately 14 test coreholes between ENP and BNP to acquire rock cores and borehole geophysical data critical to developing a high-resolution 3-dimensional karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer between ENP and BNP. The framework will be used in the development of modeling procedures to integrate the new conceptual karst hydrogeologic model into simulations of ground-water flow and solution transport in the variable-density ground-water model of Miami-Dade County.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Drilling and completion of approximately 14 test coreholes by wireline coring methods. This work supports (1) the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project (BBCW ; p. 84-85) as it provides critical data for development of a new karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer that will be used in developing procedures for hydrologic modeling of the karstic Biscayne aquifer that includes areas adjacent to Biscayne Bay; (2) the L31N/L30 Seepage Management Pilot Project and Everglades National Park Seepage Management Project (L-31N/L-30N SMPP and ENP SM p. 55-56) as it produces wells that will provide information to be used in developing procedures for modeling that will benefit monitoring and assessment of the pilot projects information needs; and (3) produces wells that will be used to develop a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework, and procedures for hydrologic modeling that can be used in research and possible model refinement to establish operating protocols of the seepage barriers.

Specific Task Products: Approximately 14 test coreholes will be installed in Miami-Dade County and available for research requirements of this study and future research needs.
By end of second quarter of FY06.

Title of Task 2: Geophysical logging
Task Funding:
USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES) and ENP Critical Ecosystems Studies Initiative (CESI)
Task Leaders: Kevin J. Cunningham
Phone: 954-377-5913
FAX: 954-377-5901
Task Status): Proposed
Task priority: High
Time Frame for Task 1:
Task Personnel: Kevin J. Cunningham, Michael A. Wacker
Task Summary and Objectives: Acquire advanced geophysical logs (digital borehole image logs, full wave-form sonic, natural gamma ray, 3-arm caliper, fluid resistivity, fluid temperature, spontaneous potential, single-point resistivity, electromagnetic induction, heat-pulse flowmeter, spinner flowmeter) in each of the coreholes completed in Task 1. Data is critical to developing a high-resolution 3-dimensional karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer between ENP and BNP. The framework will be used in the development of modeling procedures to integrate the new conceptual karst hydrogeologic model into simulations of ground-water flow and solution transport in the variable-density ground-water model of Miami-Dade County.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Acquire geophysical logs at completion of each test corehole in Task 1. Processing of sonic data to be accomplished using LogCruncher software. Use of flowmeter and fluid-temperature and resistivity data assists in selection of preferred ground-water flow paths in the karst Biscayne aquifer. Task will produce data necessary to produce a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model by integrating core analyses, (including molluscan and benthic foraminiferal data and interpretation of lithofacies and depositional facies), borehole geophysical logs, cyclostratigraphy, and hydrologic data. This work supports (1) the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project (BBCW ; p. 84-85) as it provides critical data for development of a new karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer that will be used in developing new procedures for hydrologic modeling of the karstic Biscayne aquifer that includes areas adjacent to Biscayne Bay; (2) the L31N/L30 Seepage Management Pilot Project and Everglades National Park Seepage Management project (L-31N/L-30N SMPP and ENP SM p. 55-56) as it produces data that will provided information to be used in developing procedures for modeling that will benefit monitoring and assessment of the pilot projects information needs; and (3) produces data that will be used to develop a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework, and developing procedures for hydrologic modeling that can be used in research and possible model refinement to establish operating protocols of the seepage barriers.

Specific Task Product(s): Electronic files of geophysical logs will be archived as electronic files at the USGS-FISC-CWRS office, and paper copies and PDF file versions of log montages of all geophysical logs will be produced using WellCAD software.
By end of second quarter of FY06.

Title of Task 3: Cyclostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy
Task Funding:
USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES) and ENP Critical Ecosystems Studies Initiative (CESI)
Task Leaders: Kevin J. Cunningham
Phone: 954-377-5913
FAX: 954-377-5901
Task Status: Proposed
Task priority: High
Time Frame for Task 1:
Task Personnel: Kevin J. Cunningham, Michael A. Wacker, G. Lynn Wingard, Edward Robinson, Joann Dixon
Task Summary and Objectives: Develop a new hydrogeologic framework for the karstic Biscayne aquifer between the ENP and BNP. The framework will be used in the development of modeling procedures to integrate the new conceptual karst hydrogeologic model into simulations of ground-water flow and solution transport in the variable-density ground-water model of Miami-Dade County.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Integrate data from core descriptions, thin-section petrography, paleontology of mollusks and foraminifers, construction of hydrogeologic cross sections, and measurement of porosity and permeability of core samples to develop a high-resolution conceptual karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer in the study area. Task will produce a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model by integrating core analyses, (including molluscan and benthic foraminiferal data and interpretation of lithofacies and depositional facies), borehole geophysical logs, cyclostratigraphy, and hydrologic data.

Core samples to be described using a 10-power hand lens and binocular microscope to determine vertical patterns of microfacies, sedimentary structures, and lithostratigraphic boundaries, to characterize porosity, and to estimate "relative" permeability. Limestones to be classified by combining the schemes of Dunham (1962), Embry and Klovan (1971), and Lucia (1995). Core-sample descriptions to be classified as rock-fabric facies and presented graphically. Horizontal and vertical permeability of numerous whole-core samples and porosity and grain density to be measured at Core Laboratories, Inc., Midland, Texas. Borehole images acquired from each test corehole in Task 1 will be used to quantify vuggy porosity using a method described in Cunningham and others (2004, Journal of Applied Geophysics). Molluscan analyses to be conducted by G. Lynn Wingard at the USGS Paleontology Laboratory in Reston. Core samples will be examined under a binocular microscope to observed diagnostic characteristics and compared to published species. Clay squeezes or latex casts will be made of the molluscan molds where appropriate to aid in identification. Identification of benthic foraminifera to be conducted by Pamela Hallock-Muller at the University of South Florida. Thin section samples will be examined petrographically to observed diagnostic features for identification of foraminiferal type and associated depositional environments.

This work supports the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project (BBCW ; p. 84-85) as it provides critical data for development of a new karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer that will be used in development of new procedures for hydrologic modeling of the karstic Biscayne aquifer that includes areas adjacent to Biscayne Bay. This work supports Landscape-Scale Science Needed to Support Multiple CERP Projects (p. 96) as it provides a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework of the karst Biscayne aquifer that will be used in developing procedures for higher resolution hydrologic model that can help in the ability to predict how fish and wildlife will respond to a given restoration project; This work benefits the L31N/L30 Seepage Management Pilot Project and Everglades National Park Seepage Management project (L-31N/L-30N SMPP and ENP SM p. 55-56) as it produces data that will provided information to be used in developing procedures for modeling that will benefit monitoring and assessment of the pilot projects information needs and production of a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework, and development of procedures for hydrologic modeling that can be used in research and possible model refinement to establish operating protocols of the seepage barriers. This work supports the Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheetflow Enhancement Project (DECOMP ; p. 78-79) as it produces data useful in research to understand and reduce the effects of hydrologic barriers on ecological connectivity.

Specific Task Products: Constuction of two-dimensional hydrogeologic cross sections. Development of a three-dimensional conceptual hydrogeologic framework of area encompassed by approximately 14 new coreholes. Model will be output using Environmental Visualization Systems NT-PRO software.
All tasks to be completed by end of FY06. Results to be presented in an abstract and oral presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America.

Title of Task 4: Hydrologic Modeling
Task Funding:
USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES) and ENP Critical Ecosystems Studies Initiative (CESI)
Task Leaders: Christian D. Langevin, Melinda Wolfert
Phone: 954-377-5917
FAX: 954-377-5901
Task Status (proposed or active): Proposed
Task priority: High
Time Frame for Task 2:
Task Personnel: Chris D. Langevin
Task Summary and Objectives: Initiate procedures for the application of the MODFLOW-2000 Hydrogeologic Unit Flow (HUF) pack to hydrologic modeling of the karstic Biscayne aquifer in the study area. Development of modeling procedures for a karstic aquifer will allow more reliable simulations of ground-water flow and solution transport in the variable-density ground-water model of Miami-Dade County.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Test use of relations between porosity and permeability using e.g., the Kozeny-Carmen equation, initiate application of the MODFLOW-2000 Hydrogeologic Unit Flow package, and begin application of parameter estimation techniques to apportion the bulk permeability values to individual flow zones.This work supports the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project (BBCW ; p. 84-85) as it provide a data and development of protocol for hydrologic modeling in a karstic aquifer that will be useful in establishing and managing water quality performance targets in Biscayne Bay and provides data and a protocol for hydrologic modeling that can be used in research to understand the links between the hydrology and ecology of Biscayne Bay. This task supports the L31N/L30 Seepage Management Pilot Project and Everglades National Park Seepage Management Project (L-31N/L-30N SMPP and ENP SM p. 55-56) as it provides protocol for modeling that will benefit monitoring and assessment of the pilot projects information needs and protocol for hydrologic modeling in a karstic aquifer that will benefit additional research and modeling that is needed to determine how extensive seepage control actions will affect ground-water flows and recharge within the surficial aquifer and ultimate delivery of ground-water between the Everglades and Biscayne Bay. This work supports Landscape-Scale Science Needed to Support Multiple CERP Projects (p. 96) as it (1) provides protocol for ground-water modeling in a karstic aquifer that is needed to address historical, current, and projected ground-water flows between the Everglades and Biscayne Bay and provides new data and protocol for hydrologic modeling in a karstic aquifer that can be useful for further modeling and monitoring of the Biscayne aquifer for the quantitative assessment and monitoring of seepage into the surficial aquifer.

Specific Task Products: Test use of relations between porosity and permeability using e.g., the Kozeny-Carmen equation, initiate application of the MODFLOW-2000 Hydrogeologic Unit Flow package, and begin application of parameter estimation techniques to apportion the bulk permeability values to individual flow zones. Results to be presented in an abstract and oral presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America.
Tasks to be completed in FY07.



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