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Project Work Plan

U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Science Initiative (Place-Based Studies)

Fiscal Year 2004 Project Work Plan

A. GENERAL INFORMATION:

Project Title: Tides and Inflows in the Mangrove Ecotone (TIME) Model Development - Vegetative Resistance and Meteorological Effects
Project Start Date: October 1, 1999 Project End Date: September 30, 2004
Project Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative
Principal Investigator: Harry L. Jenter
Email address: hjenter@usgs.gov
Phone: (703) 648-5916 Fax: (703) 648-5484
Mail address: USGS; 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive; Mail Stop 430, National Center; Reston, Virginia 20192

Other Investigator(s): Kevin Kotun
Email address: Kevin_Kotun@nps.gov
Phone: (305) 242-7829 Fax: (305) 242-7836
Mail address: SFNRC; 40001 State Road 9336; Homestead, Florida 33034

Project Summary: A critical objective of the South Florida ecosystem restoration effort is to create and preserve ecological conditions that are consistent with habitat requirements. Two of the most important requirements for restoration success are an understanding of wetland hydroperiods and coastal embayment salinities. Hydroperiods in the southern Everglades, including duration, timing and extent of wetland inundation, have been distorted substantially in the past as evidenced by observed shifts in zoological and vegetative species. Similarly, embayment salinities have been altered with dramatic ecological effects.

Both regulatory and natural factors contribute to the definition of hydroperiods and salinities, making their precise evaluation and management difficult. The understanding and control of hydroperiods and salinities becomes even more problematic in the mangrove ecotone, the transition zone between the Everglades wetlands and coastal embayments, where hydroperiods and salinities are inextricably linked and the mixing of fresh and salt water cannot be ignored. In this region, coastal tides, wetland flows and upstream inflows must be considered concurrently for an accurate understanding of their effects.

The Tides and Inflows in the Mangrove Ecotone (TIME) project entails a study of the transition region using a coupled surface-water/groundwater model and the collection and analysis of data in support of that modeling effort. The project described herein entails incorporation, into the TIME surface-water model, the understandings gleaned from the Southern and Inland Coastal Systems (SICS) study conducted in the Taylor Slough and C-111 Canal basins of Everglades National Park. Specifically, vegetative resistance and meteorological forcing process-study results are being incorporated into the TIME model. Because of the high demand for data in the parameterization of these results, this project also entails the assembly, storage and distribution of all time-variable data sets used to drive, calibrate and test the TIME surface-water model. This work also entails collaboration and data exchange with a number of other South Florida researchers.

Project Objectives and Strategy: The TIME Model Development project is focused on further developing, extending and implementing a mathematical model to study the interaction between wetland sheet flows and dynamic forces in the transition zone between the southern Everglades and its coastal embayments. The model will be used to study and evaluate the combined response of hydroperiods in the wetlands and salinities in the mangrove ecotone to inflow alterations. The project effort will include:

  1. monitoring hydrologic processes and dynamic forces to develop an improved understanding of them individually and of their interaction
  2. translating this information and prior knowledge of processes gleaned from the SICS project into improved empirical expressions and mathematical equations to better represent the processes both individually and collectively
  3. transforming these expressions and their correlation to ecosystem properties into numerical algorithms
  4. integrating theses algorithms into an existing numerical model framework
  5. implementing the model to the transition zone of the Everglades that encompasses the mangrove ecotone using collected data to define critical ecosystem properties such as land-surface elevations, vegetative characteristics, etc.
  6. calibrating the model using time series of water-level, flow and salinity data collected at strategic intermediate internal points and along the model boundaries
  7. documenting the model implementation and any findings that are critical to improved management of the ecosystem

Potential Impacts and Major Products: The major product of the TIME Model Development project will be a sound, physically-based, fine-resolution (500m) model of the Everglades National Park area of the Everglades consistent with the Across Trophic Level System Simulation models that can be used as a research tool and management model to study and evaluate ecosystem response to regulatory decisions. Through analysis of model results for varied inflows, cause and effect relationships to ecosystem functions and sustainability can be investigated to evaluate and guide restoration actions. Any external dynamic factors that could adversely affect restoration objectives can be identified and demonstrated. Data collected in support of the model development will be made available for dissemination via the Internet and scientific findings will be reported in traditional peer-reviewed literature as appropriate.

Collaborators: Schaffranek, Langevin, Swain and Jones

Clients:

B. WORK PLAN

Title of Task 1: Incorporation of Vegetative Resistance and Meteorological Effects into the TIME Surface-water Model
Task Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative
Task Leaders: Harry L. Jenter
Phone: (703) 648-5916
FAX: (703) 648-5484
Task Status (proposed or active): Active
Task priority: High
Task Personnel: Harry L. Jenter and Cheryl Lee (Ecological Career Organization Level III intern)

Task Summary and Objectives: The main objective of this task it to improve the TIME Surface-water Model by modifying the existing code in a way that more accurately represents the physics of vegetative resistance and meteorological forcing in shallow wetlands with emergent vegetation, specifically the mangrove ecotone of the Everglades. In order to accomplish this, limited field observations will be collected and analyzed, the large, flow and vegetation-characteristic datasets collected during the SICS project will be analyzed further, the Surface Water Integrated Flow and Transport 2-Dimensional (SWIFT2D) numerical model will be altered to incorporate improved physical representations and data sets for all relevant vegetative-resistance and meteorological factors will be assembled for the TIME Model Development initial calibration scenario: June, 1999 — August, 1999 and for future scenario testing.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Jenter and C. Lee will finalize modification of the SWIFT2D computer code to best simulate vegetative resistance to flow. This will be part of finalization of code modifications to the SWIFT2D configuration applicable to the TIME modeling domain. Vegetative resistance code changes will be based on the published work of J. Lee et al. and Lee, Lai and Jenter. Statistical correlations between depth-averaged velocity data and depth-averaged vegetation data appear to be a potential link between the vegetative resistance work to date and the vegetative mapping work of John Jones. As such, this linkage will be incorporated into SWIFT2D to the extent possible.

Additionally, final code changes for meteorological forcing inputs will be completed. These will include code modifications for the acceptance of variable wind and NEXRAD rainfall fields. In order to prepare the TIME surface-water model for potential use in future scenario testing, he TIME Data System will be modified to automatically extract and format user-selected data for model input (see Task 2 below). SWIFT2D's input processor will be modified to accept these automatically formatted data. Refinement of wind forcing and precipitation forcing algorithms in the model will be completed. These algorithms will be based partially on correlations derived from simultaneous wind and velocity measurements collected during this and previous rainy seasons.

Planned Outreach: Results from this task will continue to be published in the relevant peer-reviewed literature when appropriate, will be presented at the next Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (GEER) conference and will be reported, as required, in the USGS Greater Everglades Science Initiative 5-year Science Report.

Title of Task 2: Assembly, Storage and Distribution of Time-variable Data Sets for Surface Water Modeling
Task Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative
Task Leaders: Harry L. Jenter
Phone: (703) 648-5916
FAX: (703) 648-5484
Task Status (proposed or active): Active
Task priority: High
Task Personnel: Harry L. Jenter and Cheryl Lee (Ecological Career Organization Level III intern)

Task Summary and Objectives: The main objective of this task is to improve and support the TIME surface-water model by assembling, quality-assuring and archiving all relevant datasets for the model development and by maintaining a project website through which these data can be distributed Over 30 datasets are required at present to drive the model. Additionally, more than 200 datasets can be used to calibrate and assess the model. These datasets have been assembled into an archive from which data can be extracted. This archive, known as the TIME Data System (TDS), has been made accessible via the Internet at http://time.er.usgs.gov. It is intended that the TDS contain all relevant data spanning the range 1995 to present with a special emphasis on completeness for datasets between January 1, 1995 and June 1, 2003.. Therefore, the datasets must be updated frequently as new information becomes available or additional historical data is found. Data also must be quality-assured as they have been collected from a variety of sources. Lastly, tools for extracting, viewing, analyzing and reformatting the data must be created to support the model development.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: The TIME Data System (TDS) will be finalized. All data sets for the time period January 1, 1995 through June 1, 2003 will be archived quality assured. All tools for extracting, viewing, analyzing, archiving and reformatting data for the TDS will be finalized. Final publication of a User’s Manual for the TDS will occur in FY2004. The TDS will be packaged in such a way that it can be directly transferred with the finalized version of SWIFT2D for future scenario testing.

The TIME project website, http://time.er.usgs.gov will be maintained through FY2004 as a gateway for TIME project and other South Florida researchers to download data from the TDS and TIME project reports.

Planned Outreach: Results from this task will continue to be published in the relevant peer-reviewed literature when appropriate, will be presented at the next Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (GEER) conference and will be reported, as required, in the USGS Greater Everglades Science Initiative 5-year Science Report.

C. BRIEF DESCRIPTION ON HOW PROJECT TASKS SUPPORT THE DOI AND USGS EVERGLADES RESTORATION SCIENCE PLANS

This subset of the TIME project supports USGS Science Plan in Support of Everglades Restoration Science Objectives, Science Objective 1, Get the Hydrology Right (Water quantity, timing and distribution), in particular it is intended to address these questions:

  • How do hydropatterns and flow affect the Greater Everglades ecosystem?
  • What are the effects of vegetative resistance to flow?



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