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Project Work Plan

U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Science Initiative (Place-Based Studies)

Fiscal Year 2004 Project Work Plan

A. GENERAL INFORMATION:

Project Title: Evapotranspiration Measurements and Modeling in the Everglades
Project Start Date: October 1994 Project End Date: September 2005
Project Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative

Principal Investigator: Edward R. German
Email address: egerman@usgs.gov
Phone: 407-865-7575 Fax: 407-865-6733
Mail address: 224 West Central Parkway, Suite 1006, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714

Other Investigator(s): Sandra Kinnaman
Email address: Kinnaman@usgs.gov
Phone: 407-865-7575 Fax: 407-865-6733
Mail address: 224 West Central Parkway, Suite 1006, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714

Project Summary: Solution of water problems within the Everglades requires an understanding of the flow systems. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the Everglades water budget (generally over 40 inches/year) that has not previously been measured. This project will provide the knowledge of ET necessary for use of hydrologic models.

Project Objectives and Strategy: The overall objective is to develop a process-oriented appraisal of evapotranspiration within the Everglades drainage unit, excluding agricultural and brackish environments. Specific objectives include: 1) Field measurement of evapotranspiration at a variety of sites encompassing a regionally representative range of environmental factors.; 2) Integration of evapotranspiration estimates into a process-oriented model; 3) Verification and refinement of model using ET measurements at additional sites.

Potential Impacts and Major Products: Everglades restoration efforts will rely heavily upon development of hydrologic flow models that will be used to help guide restoration and management decisions. Any hydrologic model requires an assessment of the water budget, including the amount of water removed from the system by evapotranspiration (ET). ET is a major part of the water budget in the Everglades, being similar in magnitude to rainfall. The Everglades ET project provides the necessary ET data, and methods of estimating ET throughout the Everglades system, that are required by all flow models.

Other types of data collected as part of the ET project are pertinent to restoration studies. These include 15-min rainfall quantities, wind speed/direction, and water levels, all of which have been useful to other investigators.

Collaborators: None

Clients: Users of these models and data include universities and a wide variety of government entities, including the National Park Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the South Florida Water Management District.

B. WORK PLAN (include all tasks)

Title of Task 1: Reconnaissance
Task Funding: No funding requirement
Task Status (proposed or active): Complete

Title of Task 2: Data collection
Task Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative
Task Leaders: Ed German
Phone: 407-865-7575
FAX: 407-865-6733
Task Status (proposed or active): Active
Task priority: (High, medium, low) High
Task Personnel: Ed German, Sandra Kinnaman, and Ed Simonds

Task Summary and Objectives: Six sites will be operated to provide continuous ET and related meteorological data, including water level, rainfall, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation intensity. This year (2004) will be the last year of operation for all 6 sites. During the year 2 or 3 sites will be selected for continuation in a long-term ET network.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures:

Data are telemetered to the Orlando office by cellular telephone. These data will be inspected weekly or more frequently to detect equipment problems. Site visits for maintenance will be done at approximately 6-week intervals. More frequent visits may be required in case of equipment malfunction. Less frequent site visits may be made during low-water conditions when airboat transpiration is impossible.

Planned Outreach: None

Title of Task 3: Sampling and laboratory
Task Funding: No funding requirement

Title of Task 4: Meetings
Task Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative

Task Leaders: Edward R. German
Phone: 407-865-7575
FAX: 407-865-6733
Task Status (proposed or active): Proposed
Task priority: High
Task Personnel: Edward R. German and Sandra Kinnaman

Task Summary and Objectives: Prepare paper describing new findings for presentation at a science conference or workshop. Prepare poster to present at local university career-day and other events.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Analysis of ET data will be done to update and verify previously-published conclusions. A technical paper will be prepared and presented at a selected conference or workshop. A poster summarizing the project activities and findings will be prepared and displayed at local university career-day and other events such as Earth Day. Such events are generally held annually in Orange County, the University of Central Florida and University of South Florida.

Planned Outreach: This task will provide an outlet for latest findings related to ET data and models to scientists and managers involved in or interested in the Everglades and Everglade restoration.

Title of Task 5: Data analysis and modeling
Task Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative
Task Leaders: Edward R. German

Phone: 407-865-7575
FAX: 407-865-6733
Task Status (proposed or active): Proposed

Task priority: High
Task Personnel: Edward R. German and Sandra Kinnaman

Task Summary and Objectives: The 15-minute raw data from the ET sites will be thoroughly inspected and screened for validity. Hourly ET will be calculated using from the energy budget for each site, using the Bowen ratio method. The objective is to provide actual ET data, together with related meteorological data, for each site, and to develop and test models for predicting ET at any location in the natural Everglades system. A final report in the WRI series will be produced to present summary of all data and discussion of findings based on all data collected since the beginning of data collection in 1996. The final report will be approved and distributed by September 30, 2005.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: This task involves 3 major sub-tasks, as follows: 1) The raw data are imported into spreadsheets and inspected using graphic and statistical techniques. Plots of air temperature, water temperature, and the other parameters are inspected for outliers or other indications of sensor malfunction. Bad data are identified and excluded from ET computations. When possible, missing or bad data are estimated from other information or data from other sites. 2) An energy budget is determined from the measurements of net solar radiation, water heat storage, and soil heat flux. The Bowen ratio (ratio of sensible heat to latent heat) is determined from the measurements of air temperature and vapor-pressure gradients, and the latent heat (ET) is then determined from the available energy and the Bowen ratio. 3) Models of ET as a function of water level, solar radiation, and other variables are developed using the Priestley-Taylor formulation. These models will be compared with similar models developed in other areas, to test the validity of the regional model developed in an earlier phase of this project. Refinements of the regional model will be attempted using recent developments in satellite imagery that provide high-resolution definition of vegetation density. Use of this imagery will be done in collaboration with John W. Jones, USGS, who is studying application of satellite imagery for determining vegetative characteristics of the Everglades.

Planned Outreach: Findings to be presented at GEER conferences and other meetings

Title of Task 6: Products: Database maintenance
Task Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative
Task Leaders: Edward R. German

Phone: 407-865-7575
FAX: 407-865-6733
Task Status (proposed or active): Proposed

Task priority: High
Task Personnel: Edward R. German and Sandra Kinnaman

Task Summary and Objectives: Annual updates of all raw meteorological data and estimated ET will released.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: The reviewed and edited 15-minute raw data from the ET sites will be written onto CD-ROM in ASCII flat files for distribution and entry to SOFIA. Estimated hourly ET will be included, but will be subject to revision as more data are collected and models developed

Planned Outreach: Copies of these data CD-ROMs will be available to all interested persons, and will be available for distribution at GEER conferences and other meetings.

Title of Task 7: Geer meeting participation
Task Funding: USGS Place-Based Studies Initiative

Task Leaders: Edward R. German
Phone: 407-865-7575
FAX: 407-865-6733
Task Status (proposed or active): Proposed

Task priority: High
Task Personnel: Edward R. German and Sandra Kinnaman

Task Summary and Objectives: Present latest project findings, data, and status at Geer meeting.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Latest information will be presented in poster or oral presentation.

Planned Outreach: This task will provide an outlet for latest findings related to ET data and models to scientists and managers involved in or interested in the Everglades and Everglade restoration.

C. BRIEF DESCRIPTION ON HOW PROJECT TASKS SUPPORT THE DOI AND USGS EVERGLADES RESTORATION SCIENCE PLANS

Information provided by this project and other projects that make use of the data and findings will be used by restoration and resource managers for evaluation of management alternatives. The project supports directly or indirectly many of the Science Objectives given in the draft USGS Science Plan in Support of Everglades Restoration. Specifically, the Everglades ET project directly supports objective SO1 under Section 1A of Restoration Goal 1 (How does the Everglades ecosystem function, including evapotranspiration rates?). Indirectly, Everglades ET supports Science Objectives 2A: SG5, 2B:SG5, and 2C:SG5 under Restoration Goal 2, and SG5 under Restoration Goal 3, by providing the data and models of ET that will be necessary for use of hydrological and ecological models required by these objectives. Also, Everglades ET data and models are necessary for operation of the Landscape scale models to be implemented according to Section VI of the draft DOI Everglades Restoration Science Prioritization Strategy document.



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