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Methodology

Parameter Units Description Lab Method Reference
(see full reference below)
Dry Bulk Density g dry weight/cm3 Dry bulk density SERC Volumetric/gravimetric  
NH4 µM Aqueous Ammonium Ion USGS Reston Colorimetric, using longer path length fiber optic inserts  
Peat Depth cm Peat Depth USGS Reston Calibrated metal rod pushed to bedrock; measurement at multiple locations in random grid  
PO4 µM Aqueous Phosphate USGS Reston, SERC Colorimetric, using longer path length fiber optic inserts  
Porosity ml/cm3 Porosity SERC    
Salinity ppt Salinity USGS Reston, SERC In situ probe  
TDN mg N/L Total Dissolved Nitrogen USGS Boulder    
TDS mg/L Total Dissolved Solids USGS Reston Electrochemical using Conductivity Probe and Meter APHA 1992
Total S µM Total Sulfur USGS Boulder, Reston High Temperature Combustion Bates et al. 1998, 2001, 2002, 2005
δ34S Sulfate δ34S Stable Isotopic Composition of S in Sulfate USGS Reston BaSO4 precipitation/vacuum line combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry Bates et al. 1998, 2001, 2002, 2005
δO18 δO18 Stable Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Sulfate USGS Reston BaSO4 precipitation/vacuum line combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry Bates et al. 2002, Wasserman et al. 1992
Sulfite µM Aqueous Sulfite Ion USGS Reston HPLC Bates et al. 2005
Thiosulfate µM Aqueous Thiosulfate Ion USGS Reston HPLC Bates et al. 2005
Sulfide µM Total Dissolved Sulfide (Sum of H2S, HS- and S2-) USGS Reston, SERC Ion selective electrode, samples preserved in fresh anti-oxidant buffer Brouwer and Murphy, 1994, Standard Methods 4500G
MeHg-solid ng/g dry weight Methymercury in Solids SERC Distillation, ethylation, GC, CVAF or ICP-MS EPA 1630 (Draft); Mitchell and Gilmour, 2008; DeWild et al. 2004, 2005; Ogorek and DeWild 2011
UNFMeHg ng/L Unfiltered methylmercury in aqueous sample USGS Middleton Distillation, ethylation, GC, CVAF or ICP-MS EPA 1630 (Draft); DeWild et al. 2004, 2005; Ogorek and DeWild 2011
FMeHg ng/L Filtered Methylmercury USGS Middleton, SERC Distillation, ethylation, GC, CVAF or ICP-MS EPA 1630 (Draft); DeWild et al. 2004, 2005; Mitchell and Gilmour, 2008; Ogorek and DeWild 2011
PMeHg ng/L Particulate methylmercury USGS Middleton Distillation, ethylation, GC, CVAF or ICP-MS EPA 1630 (Draft); DeWild et al. 2004, 2005; Mitchell and Gilmour, 2008; Ogorek and DeWild 2011
Br µM Aqueous bromide ion USGS Reston Ion Chromatography EPA 300.0A
Cl µM Aqueous Cloride Ion USGS Boulder, Reston, SERC Ion Chromatography EPA 300.0A
F µM Aqueous Floride Ion USGS Reston Ion Chromatography EPA 300.0A
NO3 µM Nitrate Ion USGS Boulder, Reston, SERC Ion Chromatography EPA 300.0A
SO4 µM Sulfate Ion USGS Boulder, Reston, SERC Ion Chromatography EPA 300.0A
THg-solid ng/g dry weight Total Mercury in Solids SERC OXIDATION/Digestion, PURGE AND TRAP, AND COLD VAPOR ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY or ICP-MS EPA Method 1631; Mitchell and Gilmour 2008; Olund et al. 2005; Ogorek and Thompson 2010.
As µg/L Aqueous total arsenic USGS Reston ICP-MS EPA Method 200.8
FTHg ng/L Filtered Total Mercury USGS Middleton, SERC OXIDATION, PURGE AND TRAP, AND COLD VAPOR ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY or ICP-MS EPA Method 1631, Rev. E; Ogorek and Thompson 2010.
PTHG ng/L Particulate total mercury USGS Middleton OXIDATION/Digestion, PURGE AND TRAP, AND COLD VAPOR ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY or ICP-MS EPA Method 1631, Rev. E; Olund et al. 2005; Ogorek and Thompson 2010.
UNFTHg ng/L Unfiltered total mercury in aqueous sample USGS Middleton OXIDATION, PURGE AND TRAP, AND COLD VAPOR ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY or ICP-MS EPA Method 1631, Rev. E; Ogorek and Thompson 2010.
AVS µmoles/g dry weight Acid Volatile Sulfide SERC Cold-acid (6N HCl) distillation, sulfide trapping in SAOB, detection by selective ion probe Fossing and Jorgensen 1989, Brouwer and Murphy, 1994, Gilmour et al. 1998
CRS µmoles/g dry weight Chromium Reducible Sulfide SERC Hot-acid (1M Cr(II) in concentrated HCl) distillation, sulfide trapping in SAOB, detection by selective ion probe Fossing and Jorgensen 1989, Brouwer and Murphy, 1994, Gilmour et al. 1998
SRR_AVS nmoles/cm3 h Sulfate Reduction Rate to Acid Volatile Sulfide SERC Incubation of sediments with tracer 35SO4 for 15 min - 8 h depending on temperature Fossing and Jorgensen 1989, Brouwer and Murphy, 1994, Gilmour et al. 1998
SRR_CRS nmoles/cm3 h Sulfate Reduction Rate to Chromium Reducible Sulfide SERC Incubation of sediments with tracer 35SO4 for 15 min - 8 h depending on temperature Fossing and Jorgensen 1989, Brouwer and Murphy, 1994, Gilmour et al. 1998
kmeth per day Mercury methylation rate constant SERC MeHg production in intact soil cores from an isotope spike Gilmour et al. 1998; Mitchell and Gilmour 2008
DO mg/L Dissolved oxygen USGS Boulder, Reston, SERC In situ probe Lewis 2006, USGS Field Manual
Al µg/L Aqueous Aluminum USGS Boulder, Reston ICP-AES Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7
B µg/L Aqueous Boron USGS Boulder ICP-AES Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7
Ba µg/L Aqueous Barium USGS Boulder, Reston ICP-AES Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7
Ca mg/L Aqueous Calcium USGS Boulder, Reston ICP-AES or ion chromatography Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7, ASTM 2003
Fe µM Dissolved Iron USGS Boulder, Reston, SERC AA, ICP-AES or colorimetric Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7
K mg/L Aqueous Potassium USGS Boulder, Reston ICP-AES or ion chromatography Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7, ASTM 2003
Mg mg/L Aqueous Magnesium USGS Boulder, Reston ICP-AES or ion chromatography Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7, ASTM 2003
Mn µg/L Aqueous Manganese USGS Boulder, Reston, SERC ICP-AES Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7
Na mg/L Aqueous Sodium USGS Boulder, Reston ICP-AES or ion chromatography Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7, ASTM 2003
Si µM Aqueous Total Silicon USGS Boulder, Reston ICP-AES Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7
Solid-Fe µg/g dry weight Iron in solids SERC ICP-AES Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7
Solid-Mn µg/g dry weight Manganese in solids SERC ICP-AES Lichte et al. 1987, EPA 200.7
LOI percent Loss on ignition SERC loss on ignition of dried samples at 550°C for 4h Mitchell et al. 2008
Redox mV Redox (platinum electrode) USGS Boulder, Reston ORP electrode in situ Nordstrom and Wilde 2005. USGS Field Manual.
Specific Cond. µS Specific Conductivity USGS Reston In situ probe Radtke 2005. USGS Field Manual.
pH pH Hydrogen Ion Activity USGS Boulder, Reston, SERC ion selective electrode Ritz and Collins 2008. USGS Field Manual.
ANC µEquiv/L Acid Neutralizing Capacity USGS Boulder Gran titration Rounds 2006, USGS Field Manual
Chl mg/L Chlorophyll a USGS Boulder   Standard Methods 10200H
Alk µEquiv/L Total Alkalinity USGS Reston Titration Standard Methods 2320
DOC mg C/L Dissolved Organic Carbon USGS Boulder, Reston Heated Persulfate Oxidation Method Aiken 1992
SUVA 254 (AU)/(mg C/L) SUVA = UV Absorbance at 254 nm per unit DOC USGS Boulder uv spectrophotometry Weishaar et al. 2003
UV 254 AU Ultraviolet Absorbance at 254 nm USGS Boulder uv spectrophotometry Weishaar et al. 2003
Water depth cm Water Depth USGS Reston, SERC manual  
Temp deg C Temperature USGS Boulder, Reston, SERC thermister Wilde 2006 USGS Field Manual
Wet Bulk Density g wet weight/cm3 Wet Bulk Density SERC Volumetric/gravimetric  
δD δD   USGS Reston    

Full References:

Aiken G. R, 1992, Chloride interference in the analysis of dissolved organic carbon by the wet oxidation method: Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 26, pp. 2435-2439.

Aiken, G. R., D. M. McKnight, K. A. Thorn, and E. M. Thurman. 1992. Isolation of hydrophilic organic-acids from water using nonionic macroporous resins. Organic Geochemistry 18:567-573.

APHA. 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.

ASTM D 6919-03 Standard Test Method for Determination of Dissolved Alkali and Alkaline Earth Cations and Ammonium in Water and Wastewater by Ion Chromatography. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 11.01, 2003.

Bates, A.L., W.H. Orem, H.E. Lerch, M.D. Corum and M. Beck. 2005. An Evaluation of a Field-Based Method to Prepare Fresh Water Samples for Analysis of Sulfite and Thiosulfate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1436, 21 pp. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1436/

Bates, A. L., Spiker, E. C., and Holmes, C. W. (1998). Speciation and isotopic composition of sedimentary sulfur in the Everglades, Florida, USA. Chemical Geology, 146, 155-170.

Bates, A. L., Orem, W. H., Harvey, J. W., and Spiker, E.C. (2002). Tracing sources of sulfur in the Florida Everglades. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 287-299.

Bates, A. L., Orem, W. H., Harvey, J. W., and Spiker, E. C. (2001). Geochemistry of Sulfur in the Florida Everglades: 1994 through 1999. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-0007, 54 pp. http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/01-007/

Bloom, N., and W. F. Fitzgerald. 1988. Determination of volatile mercury species at the picogram level by low-temperature gas-chromatography with cold-vapor atomic fluorescence detection. Analytica Chimica Acta 208:151-161.

Brouwer, H., and T. P. Murphy. 1994. Diffusion method for the determination of acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) in sediment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13:1273-1275.

Cleckner, L. B., C. C. Gilmour, J. P. Hurley, and D. P. Krabbenhoft. 1999. Mercury methylation in periphyton of the Florida Everglades. Limnology and Oceanography 44:1815-1825.

De Wild, J.F., Mark L. Olson, and Shane D. Olund. 2005. Determination of Methyl Mercury by Aqueous Phase Ethylation, Followed by Gas Chromatographic Separation with Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Detection. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-445. Version 1.0 http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-445/

DeWild, J.F. S.D. Olund, M.L. Olson and M.T. Tate. 2004. Methods for the Preparation and Analysis of Solids and Suspended Solids for Methylmercury. Chapter 7 of Book 5, Laboratory Analysis Section A, Water Analysis. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2005/tm5A7/

Fossing, H., and B. B. Jorgensen. 1989. Measurement of bacterial sulfate reduction in sediments - evaluation of a single-step chromium reduction method. Biogeochemistry 8:205-222.

Gilmour, C. C., and G. S. Riedel. 1995. Measurement of Hg methylation in sediments using high specific-activity Hg-203 and ambient incubation. Water Air and Soil Pollution 80:747-756.

Hollweg, T. A., C. C. Gilmour, and R. P. Mason. 2009. Methylmercury production in sediments of Chesapeake Bay and the mid-Atlantic continental margin. Marine Chemistry 114:86-101.

Horvat, M., N. S. Bloom, and L. Liang. 1993. Comparison of distillation with other current isolation methods for the determination of methyl mercury-compounds in low-level environmental-samples. 1. Sediments. Analytica Chimica Acta 281:135-152.

Krabbenhoft, D. P., C. C. Gilmour, J. M. Benoit, C. L. Babiarz, A. W. Andren, and J. P. Hurley. 1998. Methyl mercury dynamics in littoral sediments of a temperate seepage lake. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55:835-844.

Lewis, M.E. 2006. Dissolved oxygen (ver 2.1): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.2, July 2006. http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.2_contents.html

Mitchell, C. P. J., and C. C. Gilmour. 2008. Methylmercury production in a Chesapeake Bay salt marsh. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 113.

Nordstrom, D.K. and F.D. Wilde. 2005. Reduction Oxidation Potential (Electrode Method)(ver 1.2): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.5, Sep. 2005. http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.5_contents.html

Ogorek, J, and J. Dewild. 2011. Analysis of Methylmercury in Plant, Sediment, and Soil Samples by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Detection with the Brooks-Rand "MERX" Automated Methylmercury Analytical System. http://wi.water.usgs.gov/mercury-lab/analysis-methods.html

Ogorek, J. and C.D. Thompson. 2010. Analysis of Total Mercury in Waters, Soils, and Sediments with the Tekran 2600 by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry. WDML Tekran 2600 HgT Analysis SOP Revision 1 July 2010. http://wi.water.usgs.gov/mercury-lab/analysis-methods.html

Olund, S.D., J.F. DeWild, M.L. Olson, and M.T. Tate. 2005. Methods for the Preparation and Analysis of Solids and Suspended Solids for Total Mercury. Chapter 8 of Book 5, Laboratory Analysis Section A, Water Analysis. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2005/tm5A8/

Olund, S.D., J.F. DeWild, M.L. Olson, and M.T. Tate. 2005. Methods for the Preparation and Analysis of Solids and Suspended Solids for Total Mercury. Chapter 8 of Book 5, Laboratory Analysis Section A, Water Analysis. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2005/tm5A8/

Radtke, D.B. J.V. Davis, and F.D. Wilde. 2005. Specific electrical conductance (ver 1.2): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.3, Aug. 2005. http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.3_contents.html

Ritz G.F. and J.A. Collins. 2008. pH (ver 2.0): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.4, Oct. 2008. http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.4_contents.html

Rounds, S.A., 2006, Alkalinity and acid neutralizing capacity (ver. 3.0): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.6, July 2006. http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/section6.6/

Wasserman, M.D., R.O. Rye, P.M. Bethke, and A. Arribas Jr. 1992. Methods for separation and total stable isotope analysis of alunite. Open-File Report 92-9. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

Weishaar, J. L., G. R. Aiken, B. A. Bergamaschi, M. S. Fram, R. Fujii, and K. Mopper. 2003. Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon. Environmental Science & Technology 37:4702-4708.

Wilde, F.D. Temperature (ver. 2): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.1, Mar. 2006. http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.1_contents.html

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